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Citing Sources

Citation and Style Guides

Citation Building Tools

Use these tools to format your reference list citations in APA, Chicago, or MLA styles. Check the accuracy of these citations (e.g. capitalization, indentation, etc.) using a citation guide.

Chicago Style Guides

Converting Chicago Footnote Style to Chicago Author-Date Style

Most of the time at SUNY Oswego you will be asked to use Chicago Style in order to make use of footnotes or endnotes to document your sources.  In a few cases you will be asked to use author-date references instead of footnotes.  The author-date system differs in two major aspects.

The text citation includes the author's last name, the year of publication and sometimes the page number in parentheses, unless the information is already incorporated into the text.  There will be no superscript number and no note.

The entries in the reference list (bibliography) at the end of the paper will give the year of publication following the author's name.

So instead of a footnote

               1. David Robinson, Chaplin, His Life and Art (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985), 100.

or            20.  Robinson, Chaplin, 100.

The text citation will be (Robinson 1985, 100).

And instead of a bibliography entry like this

Robinson, David.  Chaplin, His Life and Art.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

the reference list will have

Robinson, David. 1985. Chaplin, His Life and Art.  New York: McGraw-Hill.

For more details see the The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (2010) or the Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date System Style Guide from Ohio State University.


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