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* Geology Research Guide

When to Cite a Source (aka Avoiding Plagiarism)

Whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize another author's findings or ideas, you need to attribute that information to the author it came from.  This includes both print and non-print materials. 

Attributing information to another author is done by citing or referencing that author within the text of your paper; these references are called in-text citations (GSA style does not use footnotes).  You will also be expected to include a corresponding list of full citations that describe each work and enable your reader to locate the items you cited.  This list is referred to as the References Cited section of your paper.  

Geology students at SUNY Oswego are expected to use the citation style of the Geological Society of America; See GSA Reference Guidelines and Examples. Note that GSA style is different from MLA, APA, or Chicago styles. The GSA Manuscript Template can also be helpful.

Example of an in-text citation in GSA style:

                                      Example of an in-text citation including a referene to a figure.

The corresponding entry in your References Cited list for this in-text citation is as follows.  Note: There are multiple papers references in this citation and the citations in the References Cited list are listed in alphabetical order by author.

Fang, X., Garzione, C., Van der Voo, R., Li, J., and Fan,M., 2003, Flexural subsidence by 29 Ma on theNE edge of Tibet from the magnetostratigraphy ofLinxia basin, China: Earth and Planetary ScienceLetters, v. 210, no. 3–4, p. 545–560, doi: 10.1016/S0012-821X(03)00142-0.

Fang, X., Yan, M., Van der Voo, R., Rea, D.K., Song, C.,Pares, J.M., Gao, J., Nie, J., and Dai, S., 2005, LateCenozoic deformation and uplift of the NE TibetanPlateau; evidence from high-resolution magnetostratigraphyof the Guide basin, Qinghai Province,China: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 117,no. 9–10, p. 1208–1225, doi: 10.1130/B25727.1.

Lease, R.O., Burbank, D.W., Gehrels, G.E., Wang, Z., andYuan, D., 2007, Signatures of mountain building; detritalzircon U/Pb ages from northeastern Tibet: Geology(Boulder), v. 35, no. 3, p. 239–242, doi: 10.1130/G23057A.1.

Zheng, D., Zhang, P., Wan, J., Li, C., and Cao, J., 2003, LateCenozoic deformation subsequence in northeasternmargin of Tibet—Detrital AFT records from Linxiabasin: Science in China, ser. D, Earth Science, v. 46,p. 266–275.

The example of an in-text citation used above was taken from the following article:

Hough, B.G., Garzione, C.N., Wang, Z, Lease, R.O., Burbank, D.W., and Yuan, D., 2011, Stable isotope evidence for topographic growth and basin segmentation: Implications for the evolution of the NE Tibetan Plateau, Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 123, no. 1/2, p. 168–185, doi: 10.1130/B30090.1.

Citation Manager

Citation managers are software tools that help researchers gather, organize, and share citations. They can also be used to generate citations in styles unique to particular disciplines.

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