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TEL 130: Spring 2020

Citing Sources

For the purposes of this project, you'll be using APA style to cite your sources. 

One of the most important things to know about citation is that each citation has two parts: the in-text citation and the reference list. We looked at some examples of each in class. 

Citing Articles - Reference List

Citation rules very slightly depending on what kind of article you are citing. 

Magazines, Trade Journals & Scholarly Publications

For trade journals and scholarly publications, the general format is:

  • The author's last name, followed by first initial and middle initial (if they use one).

    Tip: Check out Purdue Online Writing Lab for information about dealing with multiple authors in your reference list.

  • The year of publication, in parentheses, followed by a period.

  • The article title, followed by a period. Notice that everything is lowercase except the 'A' in algorithms. You can capitalize proper nouns and the first word after a colon (see examples #2 & #3).

  • The journal or magazine title, in italics, followed by a comma

  • The journal volume number, in italics

  • The issue number, not in italics, but in parentheses, followed by a comma. Note: some journals and magazines have stopped using issue numbers.

  • The pages that the article is on, followed by a period.

Example #1

Gal, M.S. (2019). Algorithms as illegal agreements. Berkeley Technology Law Journal, 34(1), 67-118.

Example #2

Gomes, C., Dietterich, T., Barrett, C., Conrad, J., Dilkina, B., Ermon, S....Powell, W. (2019). Computational sustainability: Computing for a better world and a sustainable future. Communications of the ACM, 62(9), 56-65.

Example #3

Bowen, B., Williams, T., Napoleon, L. & Marx, A. (2019). Teacher preparedness: A comparison of alternatively and traditionally certified technology and engineering education teachers. Journal of Technology Education, 30(2), 75-89.

Newspaper Articles

For newspaper articles, the general format is:

  • The author's last name, followed by first initial and middle initial (if they use one). You can follow the same rules about multiple authors that we use for scholarly and trade journal articles.

  • In parentheses, put the year of publication, followed by a comma and the month and date.

  • The article title, followed by a period. Follow the same rules about capitalization that we do for scholarly and trade journal articles.

  • The newspaper title, in italics, followed by a comma

  • Type "p." followed by the section and page number if the article is only one page. If it's multiple pages, use "pp." or

  • If the newspaper is online, write "Retrieved from" and then paste the URL of the newspaper's home page (see example #4). The URL should NOT be followed by a period.

  • The pages that the article is on, followed by a period.

Example #4A - print newspaper

Fandos, N., & Stolberg, S.G. (2019, October 31). Fractured House backs impeachment inquiry. The New York Times, p. A1.

Example #4B - online version (same article!)

Fandos, N., & Stolberg, S.G. (2019, October 31). A divided House endorses impeachment inquiry Into Trump. The New York Times, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Need to cite other types of sources?

Check out the library's APA cheat sheet for more information.

How to do hanging indents in your reference list

When putting together a reference list in APA style, the first line should be normal, but all other lines should be indented. This is called a hanging indent. Here's how you can do it.

Don't try to do this in Google Slides - just do it in Word or Google Docs, and copy/paste it into Google Slides.

Citing Sources - In-Text

To cite articles within the text of your paper or research project:

If you paraphrase or summarize the source / If you quote from a web source with no page numbers

In these cases, you only need the author's (or authors') last name and the year.

Example #1 In-Text Citation

Gal (2019) discusses how law may not be sufficient to regulate algorithms that affect businesses and competition.

Example #4 In-Text Citation

On October 31, the U.S. House of Representatives voted endorse the impeachment inquiry into Trump; however, Fandos and Stolberg (2019) note that the House was "bitterly divided".

If you use an exact quote

Example #2 In-Text Citation

According to Gomes et. al (2019), "Nearly a billion people still live below the international poverty line and human activities and climate change are threatening our planet and the livelihood of current and future generations" (p. 56).

(See what the Purdue Online Writing Lab says about citing works with multiple authors in-text.)

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