Secondary sources summarizes, compares, critiques, or interprets the primary literature. They summarize and interpret primary sources and are often written well after the events have taken place by someone who did not observe or participate in the event. Examples of Secondary Sources: Scholarly articles, Review articles from scholarly journals, Book or movie reviews, Directories, Encyclopedias, and Textbooks
Excerpt – “There were special occasions, too, such as the centennial celebration of American independence. ‘I remember,’ said Krüsi, ‘how our Japanese friend Takamine [then a student], usually so solemn and dignified, entered into the spirit of fun – or celebration – by blowing a child’s trumpet with all his might; while in front of our house the flags of three nations – American, Swiss, and Japanese – were displayed as a sign that our humble home was inhabited by individuals belonging to American, Europe and Asia.’” from Rogers, Dorothy. Oswego: Fountainhead of Teacher Education. A Century in the Sheldon Tradition p. 69
Excerpt – “. . . the Japanese government sent Hideo Takamine to the United States to learn Oswego methods. Unfortunately, many details of Takamine’s life and works are missing, because he himself died in 1910 and his papers were destroyed during World War II . . .” Rogers, Dorothy. Oswego: Fountainhead of Teacher Education. A Century in the Sheldon Tradition p. 89
Hideo Takamine took admissions examinations on September 1, 1875. The subjects included Geography, Grammar, Arithmetic, Spelling, Penmanship and Reading. A portion of a page that shows his grades while at Oswego which includes how many times his missed class.